第五講：語言與文化意識 Culture-Specific Forms of Ideologies in Verbal Interaction: The Trobriand Islanders’ Ideology of Competition and Cooperation in the Make
講者：Gunter Senft 教授
In his last lecture, Prof. Senft elaborates on linguistic manifestations of ideology, understood as “commonsensical” frames with which a community interprets reality. Prof. Senft will present and analyze a speech addressed by his Trobriand informant Keda’ila to a group of schoolchildren. In his speech, permeated by Trobriand Islander’s education ideology, Keda’ila stresses the relation between the acquisition of knowledge (“kabitam”) and the traditional principle of competition coupled with cooperation (a form of competition whose basis are cooperative actions) that characterizes Trobriand society.
The educational-ideological background of Keda’ila’s speech offers meaningful insight into the way in which the Trobrianders conceive education in a globalized context. Keda’ila puts traditional matrilineal and community relationships in relation with a nation-wide and international context of competition. His speech illustrates how ancestral ideology is adapted in order to reinterpret local customs in the light of globalization, thereby ensuring the survival of the community.
INTRODUCTION OF THE LECTURE SERIES
In this series of five lectures, Prof. Senft will introduce some anthropological and linguistical perspectives on the study of the relation between language, culture and cognition. Prof. Senft’s main subject of research is the culture of the Trobriand Islanders and their language, Kivilila, one of the 40 Austronesian languages spoken in the Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea.
By presenting the results of his long-term field research with the Trobrianders, Prof. Senft addresses crucial questions for linguistics, anthropology, philosophy and other fields of human sciences. For instance: Is there evidence for the hypothesis of “linguistic relativism”, i.e. the idea that language influences (or determines) thought? How does language influence perception (for instance, how do different linguistic categorizations of space influence the way we perceive space)? What is the role of language in the expression and control of human emotions? Do natural languages rely on universal categories? Or are linguistic categories rather culture-related?
Prof. Senft’s lectures will not only provide with rich insights into possible answers to all these questions, they will also address relevant methodological suggestions for the researcher in the Humanities. Above all, Prof. Senft’s research stresses the importance of being “on a common ground” with the researched communities: that is, to be able to understand the complexity of categories and linguistic strategies developed by native speakers. Only then will it be possible to reduce the impact of the linguistic and cultural presuppositi